From outside inward, the uterine tube or Fallopian Tubes consists of three coats:
serous, muscular and mucous.
1. The serous coat is derived from the peritoneum.
2. The muscular coat is made up of smooth muscle,which is arranged into inner circular and outer lon-gitudinal layers.
3. The mucous coat consists of lining epithelium and underlying lamina propria.
The mucous membrane lining the tube presents about six primary longitudinal folds, which in turn give riset o a number of secondary and tertiary folds. As a result the lumen of the tube becomes highly irregular. This arrangement helps to provide nutrition to the zygote from all sides.
The lining epithelium is simple, ciliated columnar. It consists of two types of cells: ciiated columnar cells and non-ciliated secretory cells. The secretion of secretory cells provides nutrition to the fertilized ovum. The cilia of ciliated cells beat towards the uterine cavity and help in
the transport of the fertilized ovum.
The fallopian tube is supplied by two arteries: ovarian and uterine arteries. Usually the medial two-third of the tube is supplied by the uterine artery and lateral one-third by the ovarian artery.
thr veins correspond to arteries,the is venous blood is drained by the ovarian and uterine veins.
the lymph vessels follow the veins and drain into inter-nal iliac lymph nodes, pre-aortic and para-aortic lymph nodes.
The tubes are supplied by both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibres. The sympathetic fibres are derived from ovarian and superior hypogastric plexuses. The pregan-glionic sympathetic fibres are derived from the T 11 toL2 spinal segments. The preganglionic parasympathetic fibres to the lateral part of the tube are derived fromthe vagus nerve and to the medial part from the pelvicsplanchnic nerves (S2, 53 and s4 spinal segments).
Salpingitis: The inflammation of the uterine tube (or salpinx) is called salpingitis (salpinx: trumpet-like) it is one of the common causes of tubal block and may lead to secondary sterility in female. Tubal infection usually occurs due to upward spread of infection from vagina and uterus. The patency of tubal block is tested by the following tests:
(a) Insuflation test (or Rubin’s test): Air is pushed into the uterus, and if tube is patent, the air leaks into the peritoneal cavity. The leakage of air produces his singor bubbling sound, which can be heard by a stetho-
scope over the iliac fossa.
(b) Hysterosalpingography: It is a radiological technique in which a radiopaque substance (e.g. Lipiodol) is in-jected into the uterus by a suitable canula. It outlinesthe uterine cavity and uterine tubes, and if tubes are patent, the contrast medium spills into the peritoneal
It is commonest in the uterine tube (tubal gestation) and is usually associated with intraperi-toneal haemorrhage, one of the causes of acute abdominal emergency in women of childbearing age. The haemor.rhage occurs due to rupture of the tube caused by enlarg-ng conceptus.
Tubectomy It is an operation for the female sterilisa-tion. In this procedure, each Fallopian tube is ligated at two points and the segment of tube between the ligatures is resected. This prevents the meting of male and female gametes, hence no fertilization. This is the ideal method of family planning in f in female.